• Performance difference between monthly investment interval vs annual investment interval.
  • Can we offset high transaction costs and miscellanous fees to invest in Exchange traded funds because of its low expense ratio compared to majority of the mutual funds in singapore.
  • The amount of Transaction and Expense Cost incurred for a given period based on period data.
  • Investigate whether there is a certain “tipping point” where expense cost will out weigh transaction cost advantage when comparing investing choices such as Exchange traded funds vs mutual funds.


  • MSCI World Data Input
  • Total Value after transaction and expense for a given period
  • Nominal and real difference between accummulation using monthly contribution vs annual contribution.


  • Factor in selling cost
  • Factor in 30% withholding tax
  • currency conversion cost.